DAMPAK PERIKANAN TANGKAP TERHADAP SUMBERDAYA IKAN DAN HABITATNYA DI PERAIRAN PANTAI TABUKAN TENGAH KEPULAUAN SANGIHE

Joneidi Tamarol, Alfret Luasunaung, Johnny Budiman

Abstract


Overfishing and environmental degradation from fishing activities result in changes in aquatic ecosystems, and almost all fishing gears could cause habitat damages. This study attempted to evaluate the impact of different fishing gears utilized by traditional fishermen on the fish resources and their habitats and formulate an environmenttal friendly fishing fisheries concept. Data collection used two approaches, through a long-term catch analysis and a direct field observation on the fishing process. Results found that several fishing gears used were potential to cause damages on bottom habitats due to the operational technique and the treatment to the gear itself. Beside that, some gears were also potential to unbalance the stability and the the sustainability of the fish resources due to the utilization of excessively small-sized mesh. Based on the internal factor analysis strategy (IFAS) and the external factor analysis strategy (EFAS), the use of fish traps, circling gill nets, and turtle targeting hand lines in the coral reef area we­re potential to cause direct negative impact on the coral reefs and the sustainability of the fish resources.

Keywords: impact, habitat damage, resources damage, over fishing, selectivity.

 

Kelebihan tangkap dan degradasi lingkungan dari kegiatan perikanan mengakibatkan perubahan ekosistem perairan dan hampir semua alat tangkap ikan dapat menyebabkan kerusakan habitat. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi dampak alat tangkap yang digunakan oleh nelayan di perairan pantai Tabukan Tengah, Kabupaten Kepulauan Sangihe terhadap sumberdaya dan lingkungan dan merumuskan konsep kebijakan pengembangan perikanan tangkap yang ramah lingkungan. Pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan dua pendekatan yakni menganalisis hasil tangkapan untuk jangka waktu yang panjang dan pengamatan langsung terhadap proses penangkapan ikan. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa beberapa alat tangkap yang digunakan berpotensi merusak habitat dasar perairan karena tehnik pengoperasiannya dan perlakuan terhadap alat tangkap tersebut. Di samping itu, beberapa jenis alat tangkap berpotensi merobah stabilitas dan keberlangsungan sumberdaya ikan karena penggunaan mata jaring berukuran sangat kecil. Berdasarkan strategi analisis faktor internal dan strategi analisis faktor eksternal, maka penggunaan bubu ikan, jaring insang lingkar, jala lempar dan ladung penyu di daerah terumbu karang memiliki dampak negatif bagi terumbu karang dan keberlanjutan sumberdaya ikan.

Kata kunci: dampak, kerusakan habitat, kerusakan sumberdaya, tangkap lebih, selektivitas.


Full Text:

PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.