Aspek Fisiologik Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA)

William S. Wangko

Abstract


Abstract: Consumption of fiber-rich diet and undigested carbohydrate is very beneficial in the maintance of optimal health and control of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Short chain fatty acid (SCFA) is an end-product of carbohydrate and protein fermented by gut microbiota. There are three main SCFAs, as follows: acetate, propionate, and butyrate. Acetate and propionate are mainly synthezised by Bacteroidetes meanwhile butyrate by Firmicutes. Physiological aspects of SCFA are inter alia maintenance of homeostasis, modulation of metabolic process and immune system, and direct protection against pathogens in varied body tissues including intra and extra intestinal tissues. The physiological aspects of SCFAs are very promising, albeit, their implemen-tation in therapy is still very limited. There are still challenges in translation the SCFAs’ effects from animal model to human being due to differences in physiological processes and diet, as well as implementation of a certain amount of SCFA to the target tissue/organ.

Keywords: short chain fatty acid (SCFA), functions of SCFA, gut microbiota


Abstrak: Dewasa ini telah diketahui bahwa konsumsi diet berserat dan karbohidrat yang tak tercerna sangat bermanfaat dalam mempertahankan status kesehatan yang optimal dan mengatasi berbagai penyakit metabolik dan kardiovaskular. Short chain fatty acid (SCFA) merupakan produk akhir hasil fermentasi karbohidrat dan protein oleh mikrobiota usus. Terdapat tiga jenis SCFA yang utama pada manusia yaitu asetat, propionat, dan butirat. Mikrobiota Bacteroidetes terutama menyintesis asetat dan propionat sedangkan Firmicutes terutama menyintesis butirat. Aspek fisiologik SCFA yaitu antara lain mempertahankan homeostasis tubuh. memodulasi proses metabolism dan sistem imun, serta memroteksi secara langsung terhadap patogen pada berbagai jaringan tubuh termasuk jaringan intra dan ekstraintestinal. Walaupun efek fisiologik SCFA sangat menjanjikan namun pemanfaatannya dalam pengobatan masih sangat terbatas. Hal ini disebabkan oleh karena adanya tantangan dalam mentranslasi efek SCFA dari hewan model ke manusia yang disebabkan perbedaan fisiologik dan diet, serta cara memasok sejumlah SCFA yg cukup ke jaringan/organ target.

Kata kunci: short chain fatty acid (SCFA), fungsi SCFA, mikrobiota usus


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.35790/msj.2.1.2020.31669

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