Mercury (Hg) content in fish Meka (Xiphias sp.) in Fish Processing Unit and the local market in Manado and Bitung, North Sulawesi

Synthia I Rondonuwu, Siegfried Berhimpon, Markus T Lasut

Abstract


Title (Bahasa Indonesia): Kandungan merkuri (Hg) pada ikan Meka (Xiphias sp.) di Unit Pengolahan Ikan dan Pasar Lokal di Manado dan Bitung, Sulawesi Utara

 

Meka fish (Xiphias sp.) is one of the many marine products besides tuna fishery. It has potential and a competitive price to become a main product for exports from Indonesia. However, data about its quality, including heavy metals contain, is still lack. This study aimed to analyze the concentration of mercury (Hg) of the fish in three locations, i.e. the Fish Processing Unit, the local market in Manado, and Bitung. Fish consumption patterns of people living in Manado and Bitung and the risk of exposure to Hg to consumers based on the number of estimation of daily intake (EDI) and of Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) were also analyzed. The research found that there is a relationship between the concentration of Hg and the weight of the fish; the increase of weight is in line with the increase of Hg in which the greater weight of the fish is the higher levels of Hg. Further analysis showed that, based on the EDI, the amount of Hg that consumed by the community of Manado and Bitung is greater than WHO standards, and based on the THQ analysis, it was found the risk of Hg exposure to the community in Bitung.

 

Di Indonesia, ikan meka (Xiphias sp.) merupakan salah satu dari produk perikanan selain tuna, yang potensial dan memiliki harga yang kompetitif untuk menjadi andalan ekspor. Namun, data tentang mutu ikan ini, termasuk kandungan logam berat, masih kurang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis kandungan merkuri (Hg) pada daging ikan ini di tiga lokasi, yaitu Unit Pengolahan Ikan (UPI), pasar lokal di Manado, dan pasar lokal di Bitung. Pola konsumsi ikan meka dari masyarakat yang tinggal di Manado dan Bitung, dan risiko bahaya terpapar Hg terhadap konsumen berdasarkan estimation of daily intake (EDI) dan Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) juga dianalisis. Dari hasil penelitian ditemukan, bahwa terdapat hubungan antara berat ikan dan kandungan Hg; kenaikan berat ikan sejalan dengan kenaikan kandungan Hg. Dengan demikian, semakin besar berat ikan, maka akan semakin tinggi kandungan Hg. Hasil analisis EDI menunjukkan, bahwa jumlah Hg yang masuk ke dalam tubuh pada masyarakat Manado dan Bitung lebih besar dari standar WHO. Berdasarkan hasil analisis THQ ditemukan, bahwa masyarakat Bitung berisiko terpapar Hg.


Keywords


meka fish; mercury; Hg, estimation of daily intake; target hazard quotient; North Sulawesi

Full Text:

PDF

References


AFRICA, C.R., Pascual, A.F. and Santiago, E.C. (2009) Total mercury in three fish species sold in a metro manila public market: monitoring and health risk assesment. Science Diliman, 21(1), pp. 1-6.

BURGER, J. and Gochfeld, M. (2005) Fish availability in supermarket and fish markets in New Jersey. Science of the Total Environment, 166-161, pp. 653-659.

DENTON, G.R.W. and Bourdon-Jones, W. (1986) Trace metal in fish from the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 20, pp. 353- 357.

FDA, 2010. Mercury levels in commercial fish and shellfish (1990-2010). Food and Drugs Administration(FDA) Monitoring Program.

GOYER, M., GOLUP, CHOUGHURY, H., HUGHES, M., KENYON, E. and STIFEMEN, M. 2004. Issue papper on the human health effects of metals, pp. 1-13.

KLEMMER, H.W., UNNINAYER, C.S. and OKUBO, W.I. (1976) Mercury content of biota in coastal waters in Hawaii. Bulletin Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 15, pp. 454-457.

KRIS-ETHERTON, P.M., HARRIS, W.S. and APPEL, L.J. (2002) Fish Consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. American Heart Association, Nutrition Committee.

LASUT, M.T. and YASUDA, Y. (2008). Accumulation of mercury in marine biota of Buyat Bay, north Sulawesi, Indonesia. Coastal Marine Science 32(1): 33-38.

LASUT, M.T., YASUDA, Y., EDINGER, E.N., and PANGEMANAN, J.M. (2010). Distribution and accumulation of mercury derived from gold mining in marine environment and its impact on residents of Buyat Bay, north Sulawesi, Indonesia. Water, Air & Soil Pollution, 208: 153-164. DOI 10.1007/s11270-009-0155-0.

MONTEIRO, L.R., COSTA, V., FURNESS, R.W. and SANTOS, R.S. (1996) Mercury concentration in prey fish indicate enhanced bioaccumulation in mesopelagic environments. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 141, pp. 21-25.

STORELLI, M.M. and Macrotrigiano, G.O. (2001) Total mercury levels in muscle tissues of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy). Journal of Food Protection, 64, pp. 1058-1061.

US EPA, 2000. Risk Based Concentration Table, Region III.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.35800/jasm.5.1.2017.24211

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2019 AQUATIC SCIENCE & MANAGEMENT



   e-ISSN 2337-5000

 

The JASM is published by the Graduate Program of Sam Ratulangi University (UNSRAT), Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.