IDENTIFIKASI Bacillus sp. PADA BEBERAPA TAHAPAN PENGOLAHAN FROZEN TASTELESS SMOKED TUNA

Hens Onibala

Abstract


Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi keberadaan Bacillus sp. pada produk frozen tasteless smoked tuna dan menganalisa karakteristik Bacillus sp dengan uji mikrobiologi yang berhubungan dengan spesies-spesies yang potensial sebagai pembusuk dan patogen. Sampel yang digunakan berupa ikan tuna yang diambil dari PT. Sari Tuna Makmur Bitung pada tahapan proses pengolahan yaitu bahan baku, daging tuna yang telah diberi Karbon monoksida (CO) dan produk akhir. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali. Pengujian mikrobiologi meliputi pewarnaan Gram, pewarnaan spora, motility, fermentasi karbohidrat, katalase, indol, methyl red, vogues proskauer, sitrat, oksidase, H2S dan gelatin. Uji karakteristik pertumbuhan yaitu suhu, pH dan NaCl. Uji karakteristik patogenitas yaitu aglutinasi dan hemolisis. Hasil analisa total Bacillus pada beberapa tahapan proses pengolahan frozen tasteless smoked tuna yang tertinggi ditemukan pada daging tuna yang diberi CO yaitu 1,1 x 105 cfu/gr, yang diikuti oleh bahan baku 2,5 x 104 cfu/gr dan terendah pada produk akhir 1,9 x 104 cfu/gr. Berdasarkan hasil uji biokimia telah teridentifikasi 2 spesies yang diduga Bacillus yaitu B. cereus yang bersifat patogen bagi manusia dan B. coagulans yang potensial sebagai pembusuk.

Kata kunci: Bacillus, Tuna, Karbon monoksida (CO).

 

This study aimed to identify the occurrence of Bacillus sp. on the products of frozen tasteless smoked tuna and to analyze the microbiological characteristics of Bacillus sp. including its pathogenic characteristics. Samples were tuna taken from PT. Sari Tuna Makmur Bitung, on processing phases, raw material, tuna meat treated with Carbon monoxide (CO) and final product. All Samples were taken on three times. Microbiological analyses, such as Gram-staining, spore staining, motility, fermentation of carbohydrates, catalase, indol, methyl red, Vogues Proskauer, citrate, oxidase, H2S and gelatin were done. The growth characteristics of isolated Bacillus were also done on some ranges of temperature, pH and NaCl, while the pathogenic analysis was done with agglutination and hemolysis test. Total analysis of Bacillus on all samples of frozen tasteless smoked tuna showed that the highest in tuna meat treated with CO, approximately 1.1 x 105 cfu/gr, followed by raw material, 2.5 x 104 cfu/gr, and then final product, 1,9 x 104 cfu/gr, respectively. According to biochemical test, two 2 species of Bacillus were identified, B. cereus which is potensial as human pathogen and B. coagulans as spoilage bacteria.

Keywords: Bacillus, Tuna, Carbon monoxide (CO).


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